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In the game of lacrosse there are both personal and technical fouls.  A personal foul typically results in a one-minute penalty, although three-minute penalties can be imposed.  Generally, a player with five personal fouls will be ejected from the game. Technical fouls typically result in a 30-second penalty if the team against whom the penalty was committed was in possession of the ball at the time of the penalty, and loss of possession of the ball if they did not have possession at the time of the penalty.  Although the rules vary by age group, below is an explanation of some of the more common penalties.
 
Personal Fouls

Cross-Checking:   Occurs when a player checks an opponent using the portion of the stick that is in between his hands.

Illegal Stick:   If a player's stick is too short (generally less than 40") or his pocket is too deep.

Illegal Body Check:   This penalty can be called in a number of situations including (1) when a player  checks an opponent who does not have the ball and is more than five yards away from a lose ball, (2) a check delivered after the opponent has passed or shot the ball, (3) checking an opponent from behind or below the waist, and (4) checking a player above the shoulders.

Slashing:   Involves a hard stick check that makes contact with any area of the opponent with the ball other than his gloves or his stick.  Slashing will also be called when the defending player hits the opposing player in the head with his stick.

Tripping:   Typically occurs when a player uses his stick to trip an opponent who is in possession of the ball.

Technical Fouls

Holding:   Where a player impedes the movement of an opponent or the opponent's stick.

Interference:   When a player interferes with the free movement of an opponent who is not in possession of the ball.  Is often called when a player does not remain completely still when setting a pick.

Pushing:   Occurs when a player shoves an opponent from behind.

Stalling:   Occurs when a team intentionally holds the ball, without going towards the goal, with the intention of running time off the clock.

Warding:   Where a player in possession of the ball uses his free arm to hold or push-off of the opponent playing defense against him.   

 
To see the signals referees make for the above and other penalties, click here.